Permission-Server 1.0.1

dotnet add package Permission-Server --version 1.0.1
NuGet\Install-Package Permission-Server -Version 1.0.1
This command is intended to be used within the Package Manager Console in Visual Studio, as it uses the NuGet module's version of Install-Package.
<PackageReference Include="Permission-Server" Version="1.0.1" />
For projects that support PackageReference, copy this XML node into the project file to reference the package.
paket add Permission-Server --version 1.0.1
#r "nuget: Permission-Server, 1.0.1"
#r directive can be used in F# Interactive and Polyglot Notebooks. Copy this into the interactive tool or source code of the script to reference the package.
// Install Permission-Server as a Cake Addin
#addin nuget:?package=Permission-Server&version=1.0.1

// Install Permission-Server as a Cake Tool
#tool nuget:?package=Permission-Server&version=1.0.1


DotNet Nuget package providing password-less authentication with auto-expiring tokens (in an in-memory store; no database required) and confirmation emails.

Add email-based sign-up/login to your site/app with minimal effort!

Licensed under the AGPL, you are free to use Permission Server in any project whether open source, free, or commercial. For further details see here.

Copyright 2023 K Cartlidge.



Using Permission Server in your code

About the sample MVC site



  • Email address confirmation
    • Suitable for account creation or login
  • Auto-expiring tokens (configurable lifetime)
  • Multiple active tokens in case of email issues
    • Maximum active per email is configurable
  • Minimal supporting code required
  • No database needed

Potential future features:

  • Optional: database token storage
  • Optional: full account management


The hardest details to steal from your systems are those that you never stored in the first place. With Permission Server you get the reassurance of confirmed email addresses for both account creation and login, but without the need to store passwords, security questions, or other high-value data.

Reduce your risk and, for many apps/sites, your overheads too due to the ability to skip a database.

How does it work?
  • Your app/site asks for an email address
  • Permission Server generates a token and emails it to the user
    • The user signs into their email (which means the email provider is indirectly applying security for you)
    • The user reads your email, copies the token, and clicks a link back to your site
  • Your app/site has a confirmation screen/page asking for the email address and token
  • Permission Server validates the token is a match and has not expired
    • Having the token from the email account proves email address access
    • Your app/site is now safe to either create an account or sign the user in
For personal sites

You may be writing your own blog or content site and want editing features. To allow this you need some kind of authentication to enable access to an admin area.

As you don't need passwords you're free to store a list of admin email addresses in your appsettings file (for example). Your login screen takes an email address and checks it against that allow-list. If it's supported it emails a token. By accessing that token in your email you prove who you are and can enter the admin area.

For larger sites

You'll probably have a database already, but there's no need to risk data loss by adding any password or recovery details into it; your database is unchanged.

When a user confirms their email address via Permission Server you either sign them into their account (which exists in your database with a matching email address) or you take them through account creation based on that email address knowing that they have proven control of it.


What's the downside of storing tokens in memory?

There is a downside. How important it really is to you depends upon your business, your site reliability, and your release frequency.

Before saying more let me first remind you that not having a database:

  • Reduces server requirements
  • Provides simpler deployments
  • Increases performance
  • Eliminates database management
  • Removes a data source for hackers

The downside is that active tokens are lost whenever your app/site dies, is restarted, or has a new release. This means those tokens will not work.

However there are mitigating factors:

  • A stable app/site should rarely be down
  • If it is down your users can't use it anyway so your tokens are irrelevant
  • If it's down for more than your token lifetime (which is measured in minutes) then those tokens would have expired anyway
  • You probably advised of a maintenance window
  • Existing sessions will be maintained if you are using session cookies or similar; only token confirmations are affected
  • Users can simply request another token (try again)

For the vast majority of cases these mitigations mean that the benefits of no database outweigh any concerns.

There is also the secondary downside of tokens consuming app/site memory as they are not stored in an external file or database. However volumes are usually very low (relating directly to the amount of users confirming tokens not the amount of users on the site), and all used or expired tokens are automatically removed every time a new token is generated. Token growth is therefore limited to the window of your token lifetime.

Database support is a planned future feature if you still need it, so watch this space.

What if the user's email is compromised?

We're relying on users reading a token in an email to confirm access. If their email is compromised that opens up access to the token and therefore any apps/sites protected by Permission Server.

However this is exactly the same risk as a typical password-based system.

Why? A password-based system generally has a forgotten or reset password feature. This works via their emails, which means if their email account has been compromised they are equally at risk as that's now working as a password-less system in that they get to set/reset their password based on their ability to access the recovery email.

The only real extra protection is two-factor/multi-factor (eg SMS or TOTP codes) which you are free to add to a password-less system just as you would a password-based one; it requires the same amount of effort regardless.


Being licensed under the AGPL you are free to use Permission Server in any project whether open source, free, or commercial. For further details see here.

  • If you are just using Permission Server within a larger project you're fine
  • If you change Permission Server or offer it wrapped up as a networked service (eg as a cloud offering) then you need to read the license

Using Permission Server in your code

The publicly available methods and models are kept deliberately simple. After all, one of the main reasons you might choose to use Permission Server is to avoid all the complexity that comes with a full user management system.

In essence you have a class for interacting with tokens and emails, a class for options, and an extention method to help you register it all.

There is also a sample MVC website in the Permission Server source code repository.

Registering Permission Server into your application's dependency container

The below code configures and registers Permission Server and it's dependencies so you can then inject it into your controllers or services as required. This uses an extention method on IServiceCollection. In the background it also sets up its token store and emailing system.


using static PermissionServer.PermissionServerOptions;
// ...
public static void Main(string[] args)
    // ...
    var options = new PermissionServerOptions
        Tokens = new TokenOptions
            Length = 8,
            LifetimeMinutes = 15,
            SingleUse = true,
            MaximumActivePerKey = 5,
        Emails = new EmailOptions
            Hostname = "",
            Port = 587,
            StartTLS = true,
            Username = "email-account-username",
            Password = "email-account-password",

            AppName = "Sample App",
            Sender = "Sample App <>",
            Subject = "{AppName} email confirmation",
            Body =
                "To confirm this email please visit:  {URL}\n" +
                "Once there enter confirmation code:  {ConfirmationCode}\n\n" +
                "This code is valid for {LifetimeMinutes} minutes from when the email was issued.\n" +
                "Sent to {Recipient} and valid until {ValidUntil} (UTC/GMT). " +
                "If this was not requested you may safely ignore this email.",

    // ...

Note that the Subject and Body in the configuration above are templates which can include placeholders. Those placeholders are enclosed in curly braces ({placeholder}) and are substituted with the related values as emails are being generated.

Placeholder Value
{AppName} The AppName provided during configuration
{Recipient} The full recipient of the email address (eg dave <>)
{ConfirmationCode} The generated confirmation code for the user to enter
{LifetimeMinutes} How many minutes the confirmation code is valid for
{ValidUntil} When the confirmation code expires (in UTC/GMT not local time)
{URL} Where your app expects the user to enter the confirmation code

Issuing and confirming an email address via an emailed token

  • Your code needs to provide Permission Server an email address and the URL that the email directs the user to. In the background a token will be generated and a confirmation request email sent.
  • When the user clicks that link and comes back into your code you then need to pass Permission Server the email address plus the confirmation code that the user obtains from within their confirmation email. Permission Server will then confirm that the confirmation code is one that is correct, current, and issued for that email address.
  • With just two methods you've got proof that the user has access to the email address, leaving you free to either create an account or sign them in to an existing one based on that confirmation.

AccountController.cs (for example)

using PermissionServer;
// ...
private readonly PermissionServer.PermissionServer permissionServer;

public AccountController(PermissionServer.PermissionServer permissionServer)
    this.permissionServer = permissionServer;

public async Task<IActionResult> Login() => View();

public async Task<IActionResult> SendConfirmation(LoginRequest model)
    // ...
    var confirmUrl = $"{Request.Scheme}://{Request.Host}/{nameof(Confirm)}";
    var added = await permissionServer.StartConfirmation(model.EmailAddress, confirmUrl);
    if (added)
        // A token was created and the user has been emailed the confirmation code.
    } else {
        // If no token was added then the MaximumActivePerKey has been reached.
        // The user is trying too often and needs to wait for their oldest active
        // attempt to expire before they get another go.
    // ...

public async Task<IActionResult> Confirm() => View();

public async Task<IActionResult> ConfirmPost(ConfirmationRequest model)
    // ...
    var matched = permissionServer.CompleteConfirmation(model.EmailAddress, model.ConfirmationCode);
    if (matched)
        // Email account access has been confirmed.
    } else {
        // There was an issue with the confirmation.
        // It may be incorrect, expired, or already used.
    // ...

You should add data annotations to your POST models and check the ModelState. Permission Server verifies tokens but beyond that there are no checks; the first you'll know about a bad email address for example is when it fails to send.

Here are the example models used above:

using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations;

namespace Models.RequestModels
    public class LoginRequest
        [Required(ErrorMessage = "You must enter an email address.")]
        [StringLength(200, MinimumLength = 6, ErrorMessage = "The email address must be between 6 and 200 characters.")]
        public string EmailAddress { get; set; } = "";

    public class ConfirmationRequest
        [Required(ErrorMessage = "You must enter an email address.")]
        [StringLength(200, MinimumLength = 6, ErrorMessage = "The email address must be between 6 and 200 characters.")]
        public string EmailAddress { get; set; } = "";

        [Required(ErrorMessage = "A confirmation code is required - check your email and try again.")]
        [StringLength(64, MinimumLength = 5, ErrorMessage = "The confirmation code is not in the expected format - check your email and try again.")]
        public string ConfirmationCode { get; set; } = "";

For more complete details see the sample MVC site.

About the sample MVC site

The most common scenario is an MVC website, so there's an example in the Permission Server source code repository. Here's a few pointers on where to look and what to look for.

You should read the following with the sample site code also open.

Permission Server is registered in the Program.cs file.

In there you'll see the configuration and registration as mentioned higher up. What you'll also see is it switches on cookie-based session authentication. This provides automatic support for the [Authorize] attribute on controller endpoints (provided you sign the user in/out within your controllers etc).

It also sets the LoginPath in the cookie config. By default dotnet redirects unauthenticated users visiting protected pages to /account/login, but I prefer the simpler /login route instead and this option updates the cookie authentication flow accordingly.

Signing in and out via emailed confirmation codes is done in the Controllers/AccountController.cs file.

The constructor asks for an injected instance of the PermissionServer class. There are two main aspects - providing the user with a token and then confirming it later on. Each aspect has a GET and a POST where the GETs (Login and Confirm) present a view to gather information and the POSTs (SendConfirmation and ConfirmPost) make use of that information.

The SendConfirmation endpoint is given an email address by the user. It composes a confirmation URL and gets Permission Server to generate the confirmation code and email it out. It also signs the user out (personal preference; this is optional).

The ConfirmPost endpoint is again given an email address by the user but this time accompanied by the confirmation code obtained by reading that email. If everything matches the user is signed in. There are example claims added in at that point but obviously that's entirely down to you and how your application works.

For completeness there's a Logout endpoint too but that's a concern of the application itself and nothing to do with Permission Server.

Suitable views exist within Views/Account for starting and finishing the confirmation flow

These views are for the AccountController endpoints just described. They are simple and obvious, and are nothing to do with Permission Server itself. They either show the forms for taking the user login/confirm input, or they display the outcome of processing that input.

The Views/Shared/_Layout.cshtml site layout has been updated

Again, this is nothing to do with Permission Server itself but is included in case it's helpful. At the top of the view the current user and login status is assessed. In the navigation area the menu links are shown or hidden accordingly. And in the <main> area the currently signed-in user is shown before the content is rendered.

A stub dashboard page has been added to show a protected page in use

This involves a new endpoint in Controllers/HomeController.cs and a related Views/Home/Dashboard.cshtml. Both are virtually empty; the only point is to show the [Authorize] attribute protecting the page.

Please do not open the .editorconfig file in the Visual Studio UI as there is a likelihood it will become filled with VS-specific entries.

Product Compatible and additional computed target framework versions.
.NET net7.0 is compatible.  net7.0-android was computed.  net7.0-ios was computed.  net7.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net7.0-macos was computed.  net7.0-tvos was computed.  net7.0-windows was computed.  net8.0 was computed.  net8.0-android was computed.  net8.0-browser was computed.  net8.0-ios was computed.  net8.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net8.0-macos was computed.  net8.0-tvos was computed.  net8.0-windows was computed. 
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Version Downloads Last updated
1.0.1 231 11/14/2023
1.0.0 97 11/13/2023