Giraffe 7.0.0

dotnet add package Giraffe --version 7.0.0                
NuGet\Install-Package Giraffe -Version 7.0.0                
This command is intended to be used within the Package Manager Console in Visual Studio, as it uses the NuGet module's version of Install-Package.
<PackageReference Include="Giraffe" Version="7.0.0" />                
For projects that support PackageReference, copy this XML node into the project file to reference the package.
paket add Giraffe --version 7.0.0                
#r "nuget: Giraffe, 7.0.0"                
#r directive can be used in F# Interactive and Polyglot Notebooks. Copy this into the interactive tool or source code of the script to reference the package.
// Install Giraffe as a Cake Addin
#addin nuget:?package=Giraffe&version=7.0.0

// Install Giraffe as a Cake Tool
#tool nuget:?package=Giraffe&version=7.0.0                



A functional ASP.NET Core micro web framework for building rich web applications.

Read this blog post on functional ASP.NET Core for more information.

NuGet Info

Linux, macOS and Windows Build Status

.NET Core

Windows Build history

Table of contents


Giraffe is an F# micro web framework for building rich web applications. It has been heavily inspired and is similar to Suave, but has been specifically designed with ASP.NET Core in mind and can be plugged into the ASP.NET Core pipeline via middleware. Giraffe applications are composed of so called HttpHandler functions which can be thought of a mixture of Suave's WebParts and ASP.NET Core's middleware.

If you'd like to learn more about the motivation of this project please read my blog post on functional ASP.NET Core (some code samples in this blog post might be outdated today).

Who is it for?

Giraffe is intended for developers who want to build rich web applications on top of ASP.NET Core in a functional first approach. ASP.NET Core is a powerful web platform which has support by Microsoft and a huge developer community behind it and Giraffe is aimed at F# developers who want to benefit from that eco system.

It is not designed to be a competing web product which can be run standalone like NancyFx or Suave, but rather a lean micro framework which aims to complement ASP.NET Core where it comes short for functional developers. The fundamental idea is to build on top of the strong foundation of ASP.NET Core and re-use existing ASP.NET Core building blocks so F# developers can benefit from both worlds.

You can think of Giraffe as the functional counter part of the ASP.NET Core MVC framework.

Getting Started

Using dotnet-new

The easiest way to get started with Giraffe is by installing the giraffe-template package, which adds a new template to your dotnet new command line tool:

dotnet new install "giraffe-template::*"

Afterwards you can create a new Giraffe application by running dotnet new giraffe.

If you are using dotnet core 2.1.4, you will need to specify the language: dotnet new giraffe -lang F#

For more information about the Giraffe template please visit the official giraffe-template repository.

Doing it manually

Install the Giraffe NuGet package*:

PM> Install-Package Giraffe

*) If you haven't installed the ASP.NET Core NuGet package yet then you'll also need to add a package reference to Microsoft.AspNetCore.App:

PM> Install-Package Microsoft.AspNetCore.App

Alternatively you can also use the .NET CLI to add the packages:

dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.App
dotnet add package Giraffe

Next create a web application and plug it into the ASP.NET Core middleware:

open System
open Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder
open Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting
open Microsoft.Extensions.Hosting
open Microsoft.Extensions.Logging
open Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection
open Giraffe

let webApp =
    choose [
        route "/ping"   >=> text "pong"
        route "/"       >=> htmlFile "/pages/index.html" ]

type Startup() =
    member __.ConfigureServices (services : IServiceCollection) =
        // Register default Giraffe dependencies
        services.AddGiraffe() |> ignore

    member __.Configure (app : IApplicationBuilder)
                        (env : IHostEnvironment)
                        (loggerFactory : ILoggerFactory) =
        // Add Giraffe to the ASP.NET Core pipeline
        app.UseGiraffe webApp

let main _ =
            fun webHostBuilder ->
                    |> ignore)

Instead of creating a Startup class you can also add Giraffe in a more functional way:

open System
open Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder
open Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting
open Microsoft.Extensions.Hosting
open Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection
open Giraffe

let webApp =
    choose [
        route "/ping"   >=> text "pong"
        route "/"       >=> htmlFile "/pages/index.html" ]

let configureApp (app : IApplicationBuilder) =
    // Add Giraffe to the ASP.NET Core pipeline
    app.UseGiraffe webApp

let configureServices (services : IServiceCollection) =
    // Add Giraffe dependencies
    services.AddGiraffe() |> ignore

let main _ =
            fun webHostBuilder ->
                    |> ignore)

For more information please check the official Giraffe documentation.

Sample applications

Demo apps

There is a few sample applications which can be found in the samples GitHub repository. Please check the there for further information.

Live apps

The web service uses Giraffe to build rich SVG widgets for Git repositories. The application runs as a Docker container in the Google Container Engine (see CI-BuiltStats on GitHub for more information).

My personal blog is also built with Giraffe and ASP.NET Core and all of the source code is published on GitHub for further reference.

More sample applications will be added in the future.


Giraffe is part of the TechEmpower Web Framework Benchmarks and will be listed in the official results page in the upcoming Round 17 for the first time.

Unofficial test results are currently available on the TFB Status page.

As of today Giraffe competes in the Plaintext, JSON and Fortunes categories and has been doing pretty well so far, even outperforming ASP.NET Core MVC in Plaintext and JSON at the time of writing.

The latest implementation which is being used for the benchmark tests can be seen inside the TechEmpower repository.

Giraffe is also featured in Jimmy Byrd's dotnet-web-benchmarks where we've run earlier performance tests.

Building and developing

Giraffe is built with the latest .NET Core SDK, which works on Windows, macOS and Linux out of the box.

You can either install Microsoft Visual Studio or JetBrains Rider which both come with the latest .NET Core SDK or manually download and install the .NET Core SDK and use the .NET CLI or Visual Studio Code with the Ionide extension to build and develop Giraffe.

The easiest way to build Giraffe is via the .NET CLI.

Run dotnet build from the root folder of the project to restore and build all projects in the solution:

dotnet build

Running dotnet test from the root of the project will execute all test projects referenced in the solution:

dotnet test


Help and feedback is always welcome and pull requests get accepted.


  • First open an issue to discuss your changes
  • After your change has been formally approved please submit your PR against the master branch
  • Please follow the code convention by examining existing code
  • Add/modify the as required
  • Add/modify unit tests as required
  • Please document your changes in the upcoming release notes in
  • PRs can only be approved and merged when all checks succeed (builds on Windows and Linux)

Discuss your change first

When contributing to this repository, please first discuss the change you wish to make via an open issue before submitting a pull request. For new feature requests please describe your idea in more detail and how it could benefit other users as well.

Please be aware that Giraffe strictly aims to remain as light as possible while providing generic functionality for building functional web applications. New feature work must be applicable to a broader user base and if this requirement cannot be sufficiently met then a pull request might get rejected. In the case of doubt the maintainer might rather reject a potentially useful feature than adding one too many. This measure is to protect the repository from feature bloat and shall not be taken personally.

Code conventions

When making changes please use existing code as a guideline for coding style and documentation. For example add spaces when creating tuples ((a,b) --> (a, b)), annotating variable types (str:string --> str : string) or other language constructs.


let someHttpHandler:HttpHandler =
    fun (ctx:HttpContext) next -> task {
        // Some work

should be:

let someHttpHandler : HttpHandler =
    fun (ctx : HttpContext) (next : HttpFunc) ->
        task {
            // Some work

Keep documentation and unit tests up to date

If you intend to add or change an existing HttpHandler then please update the file to reflect these changes there as well. If applicable unit tests must be added or updated and the project must successfully build before a pull request can be accepted.

Submit a pull request against master

The master branch is the main and only branch which should be used for all pull requests. A merge into master means that your changes are scheduled to go live with the very next release, which could happen any time from the same day up to a couple weeks (depending on priorities and urgency).

Only pull requests which pass all build checks and comply with the general coding guidelines can be approved.

If you have any further questions please let me know.

You can file an issue on GitHub, start a discussion on GitHub, or contact me via

NuGet feed

All official release packages are published to the official and public NuGet feed.

Builds triggered by pull requests produce a NuGet package which can be downloaded as an artifact from the individual GitHub action.

Blog posts

Blog posts by author

Community blog posts

If you have blogged about Giraffe, demonstrating a useful topic or some other tips or tricks then please feel free to submit a pull request and add your article to this list as a reference for other Giraffe users. Thank you!



Apache 2.0

Contact and Slack Channel

If you have any further questions feel free to reach out to me via any of the mentioned social media on or join the #giraffe Slack channel in the Functional Programming Slack Team. Please use this link to request an invitation to the Functional Programming Slack Team if you don't have an account registered yet.


If you've got value from any of the content which I have created, but pull requests are not your thing, then I would also very much appreciate your support by buying me a coffee. Thank you!

<a href="" target="_blank"><img src="" alt="Buy Me A Coffee"></a>

Product Compatible and additional computed target framework versions.
.NET net6.0 is compatible.  net6.0-android was computed.  net6.0-ios was computed.  net6.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net6.0-macos was computed.  net6.0-tvos was computed.  net6.0-windows was computed.  net7.0 is compatible.  net7.0-android was computed.  net7.0-ios was computed.  net7.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net7.0-macos was computed.  net7.0-tvos was computed.  net7.0-windows was computed.  net8.0 is compatible.  net8.0-android was computed.  net8.0-browser was computed.  net8.0-ios was computed.  net8.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net8.0-macos was computed.  net8.0-tvos was computed.  net8.0-windows was computed. 
Compatible target framework(s)
Included target framework(s) (in package)
Learn more about Target Frameworks and .NET Standard.

NuGet packages (42)

Showing the top 5 NuGet packages that depend on Giraffe:

Package Downloads

Opinionated, web development framework for F# which implements the server-side, functional MVC pattern


Giraffe-Fable adapter that generates routes for shared server spec with a Fable client. Client must use Fable.Remoting.Client


JSON serializer for Giraffe implemented with Thoth.Json.Net


Giraffe plugin to use Serilog as the logger for your application


Razor view engine support for the Giraffe web framework.

GitHub repositories (2)

Showing the top 2 popular GitHub repositories that depend on Giraffe:

Repository Stars
Libraries, samples and tools to help .NET Core developers develop AWS Lambda functions.
.Net Building Blocks
Version Downloads Last updated
7.0.0 496 7/15/2024
7.0.0-alpha-001 403 7/8/2024
6.4.1-alpha-3 149 5/14/2024
6.4.1-alpha-2 58 5/13/2024
6.4.0 31,982 4/12/2024
6.4.0-alpha-1 428 3/15/2024
6.3.0 22,229 3/1/2024
6.3.0-alpha-1 79 2/26/2024
6.2.0 147,357 7/7/2023
6.2.0-beta001 112 7/7/2023
6.1.0 365 7/6/2023
6.1.0-beta002 105 7/6/2023
6.1.0-beta001 130 7/6/2023
6.0.0 593,576 4/9/2022
6.0.0-alpha-2 11,979 11/14/2021
6.0.0-alpha-1 17,480 11/10/2021
5.0.0 283,282 5/24/2021
5.0.0-rc-6 39,871 12/8/2020
5.0.0-rc-5 306 12/8/2020
5.0.0-rc-4 386 12/7/2020
5.0.0-rc-3 480 12/1/2020
5.0.0-rc-2 563 11/26/2020
5.0.0-rc-1 1,597 11/22/2020
5.0.0-alpha-003 1,883 9/1/2020
5.0.0-alpha-002 3,483 6/21/2020
5.0.0-alpha-001 1,112 5/27/2020
4.1.0 295,028 4/13/2020
4.0.1 194,413 10/18/2019
4.0.0 16,475 9/29/2019
3.6.0 151,187 2/10/2019
3.5.1 6,300 1/20/2019
3.5.0 7,297 12/28/2018
3.4.0 40,351 10/28/2018
3.3.0 1,086 10/28/2018
3.2.0 3,646 10/10/2018
3.1.0 31,883 9/28/2018
3.0.0 2,885 9/18/2018
2.0.1 4,427 8/20/2018
2.0.0 2,513 8/18/2018
1.2.0-preview-1 1,339 3/6/2018
1.1.0 98,717 2/16/2018
1.0.0 10,207 2/8/2018
0.1.0-beta-700 7,840 12/22/2017
0.1.0-beta-600 1,787 12/20/2017
0.1.0-beta-511 1,132 12/19/2017
0.1.0-beta-510 1,006 12/19/2017
0.1.0-beta-500 1,478 12/12/2017
0.1.0-beta-400 1,490 12/4/2017
0.1.0-beta-310 984 11/30/2017
0.1.0-beta-300 2,168 11/18/2017
0.1.0-beta-200 1,277 10/29/2017
0.1.0-beta-110 1,067 10/25/2017
0.1.0-beta-102 1,343 10/19/2017
0.1.0-beta-101 1,185 10/10/2017
0.1.0-beta-100 62,051 8/28/2017
0.1.0-beta-003 1,086 8/26/2017
0.1.0-beta-002 1,311 8/19/2017
0.1.0-beta-001 1,266 8/12/2017
0.1.0-alpha025 1,473 7/22/2017
0.1.0-alpha024 975 7/16/2017
0.1.0-alpha023 1,140 7/5/2017
0.1.0-alpha022 961 7/1/2017
0.1.0-alpha021 993 7/1/2017
0.1.0-alpha020 966 6/23/2017
0.1.0-alpha019 1,846 5/31/2017
0.1.0-alpha018 1,081 5/17/2017
0.1.0-alpha017 951 5/14/2017
0.1.0-alpha016 971 5/4/2017
0.1.0-alpha015 1,026 4/26/2017
0.1.0-alpha014 923 4/26/2017
0.1.0-alpha013 983 4/16/2017
0.1.0-alpha012 944 4/15/2017
0.1.0-alpha011 936 4/15/2017
0.1.0-alpha010 938 4/13/2017
0.1.0-alpha009 901 4/11/2017
0.1.0-alpha008 994 4/1/2017
0.1.0-alpha007 942 3/31/2017
0.1.0-alpha006 931 3/3/2017